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This article concentrates on the slave trade of pe ople from Eastern Europe, Balkans, and Asia Minor/Byzantium: Remember, Mohammad (allah) demanded jihad/war until all the religion is allah’s—it cannot go away and nor can the associated slavery and dhimmitude. (see comments from 20th century Muslims and others on the ongoing desire for jihad Bostom p 94-104). Both Ottoman Turkey and Shiite Iran openly practised slavery in the 20th century. The last Ottoman sultan had a British captive in his harem, 20th century (Khan p325). Slavery continues throughout the Islamic world today and is brought by Muslims into the west.
From the 11th century, particularly as Arab power was waning, the Turks moved out into the middle-east eg Syria, Palestine and spread through Asia Minor (much of today’s Turkey) to North Africa and into the Balkans/Eastern Europe.
Islamic slavery, destruction, conquest and dhimmitude.
“The two waves of Muslim expansion, the Arab from the seventh century and the Turkish from 4 centuries later-are remarkably similar. the great Arab and Turkish conquerors used the same military tactics and the same policies of consolidating Islamic power. This continuity resulted from the fact that the conquests took place within the framework of the common ideology of jihad and the administrative and judicial apparatus of the sharia- a uniformity that defies time, since it adapts itself to diverse lands and peoples, being integrated into the internal coherence of a political theology. In the course of their military operation, the Turks applied to the conquered populations the rules of jihad, which had been structured 4 centuries earlier by the Arabs and enshrined in Islamic sacred law. (Bostom p 60)”
In Anatolia (Asia Minor/Turkey), the Islamic frontier, during the 11th and 12 th centuries, ‘warriors of Islam’(ghazi) came to fight infidels and obtain booty in the Seljuk and Ottoman Turk jihad campaigns. These groups, including nomadic tribes were champions of Islam, dedicated to fighting the infidels around them.
“the ideal of gaza, holy war. Was an important factor in the foundation and development of the Ottoman state. continuous expansion of Dar al-Islam. until they conquered the whole world.” (contemporary Turkish scholar of Ottoman history, Halil Inalcik . Bostom p 61)
Dervishes worked to spread religious fervour, took part in military acts and were given land and privileges from rulers.
The conquest of the Balkan Peninsular by the Turks meant not only the massive destruction of productivity, the depopulation of the occupied regions, mass enslavement, and forced colonization, but also the founding of a new feudal system. This feudal system was the continuation, in a subsequent phase of development, of the Osmanli military feudalism that had been created in Asia Minor during the first half of the fourteenth century. In essence, this system did not modify the feudal ties that existed in the Balkan states at the time when they were conquered by the Turks, but compared with them, the system was at an inferior, barbarous level, having as its foundation brutal coercion and terror, since the Muslims had the privilege of resorting with impunity to violence against the Christian population and of subjecting it to unlimited exploitation. (Angelov p 506)
Even a brief look at the date list, part H in the slavery series, shows the violence and oppression by the Muslims!
Byzantine historian Georgius Pachymeres, a contemporary of the events in the 1262-82 invasion north of the meander, (Paphlagonia, Caria in Asia Minor) described the ruination of towns and monasteries, the fleeing population and the conversion of land into a ‘ Scythian desert. ’ He notes indiscriminate massacres, large scale enslavement, the merciless crushing of any resistance and the death of the entire male population where people refused to surrender. (Angelov p465, 466)
Other contemporary writers note the same acts of sadism and destruction throughout the conquest by the Turks and indeed on conquered populations until the 20th century.
The incessant military campaigns fulfilled the desires of all to spread Islam and gain their just rewards of slaves and land. In depopulated areas, ‘slaves’ replaced local inhabitants in all areas of work/labour, and served in households and harems. Selling slaves enabled the seller to purchase precious objects from elsewhere. Slaves were a source of ‘wealth’ for soldiers encouraging further conquest. The 14th century Ottoman state had only a rudimentary economy with underdeveloped commerce and trades and money was rare. (Angelov p 485-487). Enslavement served to weaken nations as populations were depleted and moved. Mass enslavements are documented.
The remaining populations were severely exploited peasants who laboured for others and were subjected to excessive taxes and fines. Similarly artisans were needed so, despite the routine massacres and deportations, the military was used to stop people fleeing and force them to remain.(Angelov p 470-471). The feudal class of Turks learnt they needed to keep the peasants to benefit from their surplus value and become wealthy. Muslim Turks ruled but were a minority population particularly in the Balkans where most of the population remained Christian. Allowing people to remain Christian was not ‘kindness’or ‘tolerance’, it was a practical and economic necessity as the non-Muslim population could be charged higher taxes ( the humiliating jizya or poll tax is more than the zakat –Durie p 169-178), extra fines and charges etc plus, any sign of rebellion could be met with death for the community or enslavement or forced mass movement or taking more children. Hence ordinary people lived in fear and were reduced to a servile, destitute state without the means to resist under the repressive dhimmi laws while wealth went to their Muslim overlords and their agents. (see articles on dhimmitude laws this site)
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